Bayworld Centre for Research & Education
BCRE

Publications

Marine Biology

Sharks

2009
  • Dicken, M.L., Booth, A.J. and Smale, M.J. (2009)
    Factors affecting recapture rates of raggedtooth sharks Carcharias taurus tagged off the east coast of South Africa.
    African Journal of Marine Science, 31 (3): 365–372.
  • Singh, L., Downey, N.J., Roberts, M.J., Webber, D.M., Smale, M.J., van den Berg, M., Harding, R.T., Engelbrecht, D.C. and Blows, B.M. (2009)
    Design and calibration of an acoustic telemetry system subject to upwelling events.
    African Journal of Marine Science, 31 (3): 355–366.
2008
  • Dicken, M.L., Booth, A.J. and Smale, M.J. (2008)
    Estimates of juvenile and adult raggedtooth shark (Carcharias taurus) abundance along the east coast of South Africa.
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 621-632.
2007
  • Dicken, M.L., Booth, A.J., Smale, M.J. and Cliff, G. (2007)
    Spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of juvenile and adult raggedtooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) tagged off the east coast of South Africa.
    Marine and Freshwater Research 58: 127-134.
2006
  • Dicken, M.L., Booth, A.J. and Smale, M.J. (2006)
    Preliminary observations of tag shedding, tag reporting,tag wounds, and tag biofouling for taggedtooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) tagged off the east coast of South Africa.
    ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63: 1640-1648.
  • Dicken, M.L., Smale, M.J. and Booth, A.J. (2006)
    Shark fishing effort and catch of ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus in the South African competitive shore-angling fishery.
    A. J. mar. Sci. (3):589-601.
  • Dicken, M.L., Smale, M.J. and Booth, A.J. (2006)
    Spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus along the coast of South Africa.
    A. J. mar. Sci. 28(3): 603-616.
  • Heemstra, P.C., Fricke, H., Hissmann, K., Schauer, J., Smale, M.J. and Sink, K. (2006)
    Fishes of the deep demersal habitat at Ngazidja (Grand Comoro) Island, Western Indian Ocean.
    S. Afr. J. Sci. 102: 444-460.
  • Heemstra, P.C., Hissmann, K., Fricke, H., Smale, M.J. and Schauer, J. (2006)
    Interactions of fishes with particular reference to coelacanths in the canyons at Sodwana Bay and the St Lucia Marine Protected Area of South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. Sci. 102: 441-465.
2005
  • De Bruyn, P., Dudley, S.F.J., Cliff, G. and Smale, M.J. (2005)
    Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 11. The scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith).
    Afr. J. mar. Sci. 27(3): 217-528.
  • Dudley, S.F.J., Cliff, G., Zungu, M.P. and Smale, M.J. (2005)
    Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 10. The dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesuer 1818).
    Afr. J. mar. Sci. 27(1): 107-127.
  • Smale, M.J. (2005)
    The diet of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810 in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    Afr. J. mar. Sci. 27(1): 331-335.
2004
  • Cochrane, K.L., Augustyn, C.J., Cockcroft, A.C., David, J.M., Griffiths, M.H., Groeneveld, J.C., Lipinski, M.R., Smale, M.J., Smith, C.D. and Tarr, R.J.Q. (2004)
    An ecosystem approach to fisheries in the southern Benguela contest.
    A. J. mar. Sci. 26: 9-35.
  • Heemstra, E., Heemstra, P., Smale, M., Hooper, T. and Pelicier, D. (2004)
    Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues.
    J. Nat. Hist. 38, 331-3344.
2003
  • Oosthuizen, A. and Smale, M.J. (2003)
    Population biology of Octopus vulgaris on the temperate south-eastern coast of South Africa.
    J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 83: 535-541.
2002
  • Hanlon, R.T., Smale, M.J. and Sauer. W.H.H. (2002)
    The mating system of the squid, Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Cephalopoda, Mollusca) off South Africa: Fighting, guarding, sneaking, mating and egg laying behavior.
    Bull. Mar. Sci. 71: 331-345.
  • Smale, M.J. (2002)
    Occurrence of Carcharias taurus in nursery areas of the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa.
    Mar. Freshwater Res.53: 551-556.
  • Smale, M.J., Compagno, L.J.V., and Human, B.A. (2002)
    First megamouth shark from the western Indian Ocean.
    South African Journal of Science 98: 349-350.
2001
  • Smale, M.J., Sauer, W.H.H. and Roberts, M.J. (2001)
    Behavioural interactions between predators and spawning chokka squid off South Africa: Towards quantification.
    Mar. Biol..139: 1095-1105.
  • Voegeli, F.A., Smale, M.J., Webber, D.M., Andrade, Y. and O'dor, R.K. (2001)
    Ultrasonic telemetry, tracking and automated monitoring technology for sharks.
    In: The behaviour and sensory biology of elasmobranch fishes: an anthology in memory of Donald Richard Nelson. Eds. Tricas, T.C. and Gruber, S.H.. Environmental Biology of Fishes 60: 267-281.
  • Webber, D.M., Boutilier, R.G., Kerr, S.R. and Smale, M.J. (2001)
    Caudal differential pressure as a predictor of swimming speed of cod (Gadus morhua).
    J. Exper. Biol. 204: 3561-3570.
2000
  • Cliff, G, Compagno, L.J.V., Smale, M.J., Van Der Elst, R.P. and Wintner, S.P. (2000)
    First records of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, from Mauritius, Zanzibar, Madagascar and Kenya.
    South African Journal of Science 96: 365-367.
1999
  • Smale, M.J. and Goosen, A.J.J. (1999)
    Reproduction and feeding of spotted gully shark, Triakis megalopterus, off the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    Fishery Bulletin 97: 987-998.
  • Watson, G. and Smale, M.J. (1999)
    Age and growth of the shortnose spiny dogfish Squalus megalops form the Agulhas Bank, South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 21: 9-18.
1998
  • O’dor, R.K., Arande, Y., Webber, D.M., Sauer, W.H.H., Roberts, M.J., Smale, M.J. and Voegeli, F.M. (1998)
    Applications and performance of radio-acoustic positioning and telemetry (RAPT) systems.
    Hydrobiologia 371/372: 1-8.
  • Smale, M.J. and Cliff, G. (1998)
    Cephalopods in the diets of four sharks pecies (Galeocerdo cuvier, Sphyrna lewini, S. zygaena and S. mokarran) from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    In: Cephalopod Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution Eds. Payne, A.I.L., Lipinski, M.R., Clarke, M.R. and Roeleveld, M.A.C.: S. Afr. J. mar. Sci 20: 241-253.
  • Watson, G. and Smale, M.J. (1998)
    Reproductive biology of shortnose spiny dogfish, Squalus megalops, from the Agulhas Bank, South Africa.
    Mar. freshwater Res. 49: 695-703.
1997
  • Beckley, L.E., Cliff, G.M., Smale, M.J. and Compagno L.J.V. (1997)
    Recent strandings and sightings of whale sharks in South Africa.
    Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 343-348.
  • Goosen, A.J.J. and Smale, M.J. (1997)
    A preliminary study of age and growth of the smooth-hound shark Mustelus mustelus (Triakidae).
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 18: 85-91.
  • Hensley, D.A. and Smale, M.J. (1997)
    A new species of flatfish genus Chascanopsetta (Pleronectiformes: Bothidae), from the coasts of Kenya and Somalia with comments on C. lugubris.
    Spec. Publ. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ich. 59:1-16.
  • Sauer, W.H.H., Roberts, M.J., Lipinski, M.R., Smale, M.J., Hanlon, R.T. Webber, D.M. and O’dor, R.K. (1997)
    Choreography of the squid’s “nuptial dance”.
    Biol. Bull. 192: 203-207.
  • Smale, M.J. and Compagno, L.J.V. (1997)
    Life history and diet of two southern African houndsharks, Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758) an Mustelus palumbes Smith,1957 (Pisces:Triakidae).
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 18: 229-248.
  • Smale, M.J. and Heemstra, P.C. (1997)
    First record of albinism in the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758).
    S. Afr. J. Sci. 93: 243-245.
1996
  • Smale, M.J. (1996)
    Cephalopods as prey: IV. Fishes. In Role of Cephalopods in the world's oceans. Ed. M.R. Clarke.
    Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 351: 1067-1081.
1995
  • Smale, M.J., Sauer, W.H.H. and Hanlon, R.T. (1995)
    Attempted ambush predation on spawning squids Loligo vulgaris reynaudii by benthic pyjama sharks Poroderma africanum off South Africa.
    J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 75: 739-742.
  • Smale, M.J., Watson, G. and Hecht, T. (1995)
    Otolith atlas of southern African marine fishes.
    Ichthyological Monographs. J.L.B., Smith Inst. Ichthyol. 1: i-xiv, 253 pp., 149 plates.
1994
  • Hanlon, R.T., Smale, M.J. and Sauer, W.H.H. (1994)
    An ethogram of body patterning behaviour in the squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii on spawning grounds in South Africa.
    Biol. Bull. 187: 363-372.
  • Japp, D.W., Sims, P. and Smale, M.J. (1994)
    A review of the fish resources of the Agulhas Bank.
    S. Afr. J. Sci. 90: 123-134.
  • Smale, M.J., Klages, N.T., David, J.H.M. and Cockcroft, V.G. (1994)
    Predators of the Agulhas Bank.
    S. Afr. J. Sci. 90: 135-142.
1993
  • Oldewage, W.H. and Smale, M.J. (1993)
    Occurrence of piscine parasitic copepods (Crustacea) on sharks taken mainly off Cape Recife, South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 13: 309-312.
  • Sauer, W.H. and Smale, M.J. (1993)
    Spawning behaviour of Loligo vulgaris reynaudii in shallow coastal waters of the South-Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    In: Recent Advances in Cephalopod Fisheries Biology. Okutani, T., O'Dor, R.K. and Kubodera, T. (Eds). Tokai University Press, Tokyo: 489-498.
  • Sauer, W.H.H., Mccarthy, C., Smale, M.J. and Koorts A.S. (1993)
    An investigation of the egg distribution of the chokka squid, Loligo vulgaris reynaudii, in Krom Bay, South Africa.
    Bull. Mar. Sci. 53: 1006-1077.
  • Smale, M.J. (1993)
    Fish communities, food webs and fisheries of the Cape south coast. (Eds.) Beckley, L.E. and van der Elst, R.P. Proceedings of the Second South African Marine Linefish Symposium, Durban. 23-24 October 1992.
    Oceanographic Research Institute Special Publication (2): 143-149.
  • Smale, M.J., Clarke, M.R., Klages, N.T. and Roeleveld, M.A.C. (1993)
    Octopod beak identification - resolution at a regional level (Cephalopoda, Octopoda: Southern Africa).
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 13: 269-293.
  • Smale, M.J., Roel, B.A., Badenhorst, A.O. and Field, J.G. (1993)
    Analysis of the demersal community of fish and cephalopods on the Agulhas Bank, South Africa.
    J. Fish Biol. 43 (Supplement A): 169-191.
1992
  • Sauer, W.H., Smale, M.J. and Lipinski, M.R. (1992)
    The location of spawning grounds, spawning and schooling behaviour of the squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) off the Eastern Cape Coast, South Africa.
    Marine Biology 114: 97-107.
  • Smale, M.J. (1992)
    Predatory fishes and their prey - An overview of trophic interactions in the fish communities of the west and south coasts of South Africa.
    In: Benguela Trophic Functioning Payne, A.I.L., Brink, K.H., Mann, K.H. and Hilborn, R. (Eds). S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 12: 803-821.
  • Smale, M.J. and Cowley, P.D. (1992)
    The feeding ecology of skates (Batoidea: Rajidae) off the Cape south coast, South Africa.
    In: Benguela Trophic Functioning Payne, A.I.L., Brink, K.H., Mann, K.H. and Hilborn. R. (Eds). S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 12: 823-834.
1991
  • Badenhorst, A. and Smale, M.J. (1991)
    The distribution and abundance of seven commercial trawlfish from the Cape south coast of South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 11: 377-393.
  • Jackson, L.F., Smale, M.J. and Berry, P.F. (1991)
    Ghost crabs of the genus Ocypode (Decopoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae) of the east coast of South Africa.
    Crustaceana: 61: 280-286.
  • Meyer, M. and Smale, M.J. (1991)
    Predation of demersal teleosts from the Cape south and west coasts of South Africa. 1. Pelagic predators.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 10: 173-191.
  • Meyer, M. and Smale, M.J. (1991)
    Predation patterns of demersal teleosts from the Cape south and west coasts of South Africa. 2. Benthic and epibenthic predators.
    S. Afr. J. mar Sci. 11: 409-442.
  • Sauer, W.H. and Smale, M.J. (1991)
    Predation patterns on the inshore spawning grounds of the squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) off the south-eastern Cape, South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 11: 513-523.
  • Smale, M.J. (1991)
    Occurrence and feeding of three shark species, Carcharhinus brachyurus, C. obscurus and Sphyrna zygaena, on the eastern Cape coast of South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 11: 31-42.
  • Smale, M.J. and Badenhorst, A. (1991)
    The distribution and abundance of linefish and secondary trawlfish from the Cape south coast of South Africa.
    S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 11: 394-407.